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Psychological Reports, 2007, 100, 3-18. © Psychological Reports 2007

CAN CIGARETTE WARNINGS COUNTERBALANCE
EFFECTS OF SMOKING SCENES IN MOVIES?’

ISABELLE GOLMIER                                   JEAN-CHARLES CHEBAT

National Bank of Canada                                 HEC-Montreal School of Management

Ecole des Hautes Etudes Commerciales de Montreal

CLAIRE GELINAS-CHEBAT

Department of Linguistics


Universitc> du Que’hec a Montrc’al

Summary. Scenes in movies where smoking occurs have been empirically shown to influence teenagers to smoke cigarettes. The capacity of a Canadian warning label on cigarette packages to decrease the effects of smoking scenes in popular movies has been investigated. A 2 x 3 factorial design was used to test the effects of the same movie scene with or without electronic manipulation of all elements related to smok­ing, and cigarette pack warnings, i.e., no warning, text-only warning, and text +pic­ture warning. Smoking-related stereotypes and intent to smoke of teenagers were mea­sured. It was found that, in the absence of warning, and in the presence of smoking scenes, teenagers showed positive smoking-related stereotypes. However, these effects were not observed if the teenagers were first exposed to a picture and text warning. Also, smoking-related stereotypes mediated the relationship of the combined presenta­tion of a text and picture warning and a smoking scene on teenagers’ intent to smoke. Effectiveness of Canadian warning labels to prevent or to decrease cigarette smoking among teenagers is discussed, and areas of research are proposed.

The problem of teenager consumption of tobacco is serious. Approxi­mately 22{0e601fc7fe3603dc36f9ca2f49ef4cd268b5950ef1bbcf1f795cc00e94cdd119} of Canadian teenagers between 15 and 19 years currently smoke cigarettes (Health Canada, 2003). Sociodemographic analyses indicated that they are more likely to be found in the lower income and lower education segment of the Canadian population (Health Canada, 1995, 1999), as is also the case in other countries (Goldberg, Kindra, Lefebvre, Liefeld, Madill-Marshall, Martoharadjono, & Vredenburg, 1995; Blum, Beuhring, Shew, Bearinger, Sieving, & Resnick, 2000). In Canada, warning labels on cigarette packages have been conceived as one of the key strategies to prevent teenag­ers from smoking.

In 2000, the Canadian government adopted one of the world’s toughest laws for cigarette warnings (Health Canada, 2004). Each warning label coy-

‘Address correspondence to Jean-Charles Chebat, Chair of Commercial Space and Customer Service Management Holder, HEC-Montreal School of Management, 3000 Cote-Sainte-Cathe­rine Local 4.348, Montreal, Quebec, Canada 11.3T 2A7 or e-mail ( Jean-Ch.arles.Chebat@hec. ca), The first and third authors gratefully acknowledge a research grant they received from the Quebec Council of Social Research (CQRSC).

DOT 10.2466/P80.100.1.3-18

Influence of Motion Picture Rating on AdolescentResponse to Movie Smoking
WHAT’S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT: The US Surgeon General hasdetermined that the relationship between movie smoking

exposure (MSE) and youth smoking is causal; however, it is not

known whether movie rating influences how adolescents respond.

WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS: The response to PG-13–rated MSE wasindistinguishable from R-rated MSE. An R rating for smoking could

reduce smoking onset in the United States by 18{0e601fc7fe3603dc36f9ca2f49ef4cd268b5950ef1bbcf1f795cc00e94cdd119} (by eliminating

PG-13 MSE), an effect similar to making all parents maximally

authoritative in their parenting.

AUTHORS: James D. Sargent, MD,a Susanne Tanski, MD,MPH,a and Mike Stoolmiller, PhDb
        Cotton Cancer Center, Geisel School of Medicine atDartmouth, Lebanon, New Hampshire; and bCollege of Education,

University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon

KEY WORDSadolescent smoking, motion picture rating, movie smoking
ABBREVIATIONSCI—confidence interval

MPAA—Motion Picture Association of America

MSE—movie smoking exposure

www.pediatrics.org/cgi/doi/10.1542/peds.2011-1787
doi:10.1542/peds.2011-1787
aNorris

 

abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between movie smoking expo-sure (MSE) and adolescent smoking according to rating category.
METHODS: A total of 6522 US adolescents were enrolled in a longitudinalsurvey conducted at 8-month intervals; 5503 subjects were followed up at

8 months, 5019 subjects at 16 months, and 4575 subjects at 24 months.

MSE was estimated from 532 recent box-office hits, blocked into 3 Motion

Picture Association of America rating categories: G/PG, PG-13, and R. A

survival model evaluated time to smoking onset.

 

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