what is Human Resources planning?
March 15, 2021
What Type Of Research Study Design Is Each Of The Following And Why
March 15, 2021

Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Chapter 15Developing and Testing Self-Report Scales

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Scale development begins with a sound conceptualization of the construct (the latent variable) to be measured, excluding its dimensionality.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Scale development begins with a sound conceptualization of the construct (the latent variable) to be measured, including its dimensionality.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Conceptualizing the Construct

Scale development begins with a sound conceptualization of the construct (the latent trait) to be measured, including its dimensionality.Unobservable latent traitUnidimensional

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Type of Scale

Scale selection is done before items can be generated.

Two broad categories of multi-item reflective scales

Traditional summated rating (Likert)Latent trait

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Generating Item Pool

SourcesExisting instrumentsResearch literatureConcept analysesIn-depth studiesClinical observations

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Decisions about Item Features

Number of itemsResponse itemsPositive and negative stemsItem intensityItem time frames

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Number of Items

Domain sampling model: homogeneous set of items from a hypothetical universe of itemsGoal is to provide appropriate redundancy so idiosyncrasies can be cancelled out.Recommends starting with 3 to 4 times as many items as you will have in your final scale

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Response Options

Scale items contain:A stemResponse optionsFor example, strongly disagree, disagree, agree, strongly agree

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Positive and Negative Stems

The objective was to include items that would minimize the possibility of an acquiescence response set—the tendency to agree with statements regardless of their content.Many experts currently advise again including negative and positive items on a scale.

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Item Intensity

The intensity of the statements (stems) should be similar and fairly strongly worded.Statements should not be so extremely worded as to result in universal rejection.

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Item Time Frames

A time frame should not emerge as a consequence of item development.It should be decided upon in advance, based on the conceptual understanding of the construct and the needs for which the scale is being constructed.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Wording the Items—Readability

ClarityJargonLengthDouble negativesDouble-barreled items

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Once content validity has been established at a satisfactory level, the scale must be administered to a development sample. What is the typical number of respondents who are representative of the target population?

100

150

250

300

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

D

Once content validity has been established at a satisfactory level, the scale must be administered to a development sample—typically 300 or more respondents who are representative of the target population.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Content Validity

Satisfactory levelDevelopment sample300 or more respondents representative of target population

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Field Testing the Instrument

Developing the sampling planDeveloping a data collection planPreparing for data collection

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Question

Tell whether the following statement is true or false:

Exploratory factor analysis is used to reduce a small set of variables into a larger set of underlying dimensions, called factors.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Answer

False

Exploratory factor analysis is used to reduce a large set of variables into a smaller set of underlying dimensions, called factors.

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Analysis of Scale Development Data

Basic item analysis

Inter-item correlationItem–scale correlations

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA)

Factor extractionPrincipal components analysis (PCA)Factor rotation—orthogonal or oblique

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Illustration of Factor Rotation

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Scale Refinement and Validation

Revising the scaleScoring the scaleConducting a validation study

Confirmatory factor analysis

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Confirmatory Factor Analysis

CFA is a second study often undertaken to validate the scale.A subset of sophisticated statistical techniques (structural equation modeling)Involves tests of a measurement modelStipulates the hypothesized relationship between latent traits and manifest variables (items)

*

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Interpretability of Scale Scores

Interpretability: the degree to which one can assign qualitative meaningPercentileStandard scoresNormsCutoff points

Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

Critiquing Scale Development Studies

Methods usedWhether the evidence regarding the scale’s psychometric adequacy is sufficiently soundSee Box 15.1
 
Do you need a similar assignment done for you from scratch? We have qualified writers to help you. We assure you an A+ quality paper that is free from plagiarism. Order now for an Amazing Discount!Use Discount Code “Newclient” for a 15% Discount!NB: We do not resell papers. Upon ordering, we do an original paper exclusively for you.

 

"Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!"

Essay Writing Service

"Is this question part of your assignment? We Can Help!"

Essay Writing Service
ORDER NOW