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October 9, 2020
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October 9, 2020

Multiple Regression in Nursing Research Academic EssayOctober 9, 2020

How are drugs sorted into therapeutic groups and classes?A. first by the conditions that they are used to treat. and then by their mechanisms of actionB. first by their mechanisms of action. and then by their therapeutic effectsC. first by their side effects. and then by their therapeutic effectsD. first by their toxicity. and then by their effectiveness2. Bone marrow transplants…A. require that the patient first undergo chemotherapy or radiation to kill the diseased stem cells and promote white blood cell production.B. are a type of stem cell therapy. unless patient’s own cells are reinjected.C. are always a type of stem cell therapy.D. can help people with leukemia. a condition in which the body does not produce enough white blood cells.3. What does AMA stand for?A. American Medical AcademyB. American Medical AccreditationC. American Medical AssociationD. Association of Medical Assistants4. What section of a drug’s package insert describes situations in which the drug should not be used because the risks outweigh the therapeutic benefits?A. adverse reactionsB. contraindicationsC. overdosageD. warning/precautions5 What is tertiary care?A. aIDing medications together to achieve a better clinical effectB. highly specialized medical and surgical care provided by a large medical center for unusual or complex medical problemsC. receiving medical or surgical care that does not require an overnight stay in the treatment facilityD. seeing a physician for routine checkups and general healthcare6. Which of the following is NOT one of the stages in the classic approach to brand development strategy covered in your manual?A. brand personalityB. brand positoningC. brand qualityD. brand values7 What are vasodilators used to do?A. decrease vascular resistance and increase blood flowB. mimic pathogens to stimulate the immune systemC. narrow the blood vesselsD.stimulate the CNS to make the heart beat faster8. What is the name of the condition that occurs after a specific dose of a drug is given at such regular intervals that absorption and elimination (and therefore drug plasma concentration) have become fairly constant?A. homeostasisB. steady stateC. titrationD. tolerance9. Which statement is TRUE about ocular administration?A. Ocular administration is primarily for drugs that must cross the blood-brain barrier.B. Ocular administration is used primarily to treat the eye.C. Ocular administration is used when a drug must enter the bloodstream immediately.D. Ocular administration is used when a drug must produce immediate effects on the brain or spinal cord.10. Which entities invest’s the most money in pharmaceutical R&D?A. Canadian pharmaceutical companiesB. the NIHC. the U.S. GovernmentD. U.S. pharmaceutical companies11. How are most drugs excreted?A. via the bloodstreamB. via the heartC. via the kidneysD. via the skin12. Over the last few decades, what has happened to legal limitations on sales’ reps discussions about off label uses?A. Limitations have decreased.B. Limitations have increased significantly.C. Limitations have increased slightly.D. Limitations have remained about the same.13. Answer:Branding name14. What does it mean if two drugs are at parity?A. Both drugs are essentially in a neutral position.B. Both drugs are generics.C. Both drugs have exclusive preferred status.D. The two drugs are bioequivalent.15. Who is most likely to benefit from electronic sampling programs?A. Everyone would benefit equally from electronic sampling programsB. physicians in hospitals who are too busy to see representativesC. physicians in rural areas who are not as frequently visited by representativesD. physicians in urban areas who are too busy to see representatives16. When referring to medication dosage, which abbreviation means “one-half’:A. MSB. OHC. SMD. SS17 What is an internist?A. a physician who practices internal medicineB. a physician’s internC. a type of oncologist who specializes in chemotherapyD. an internal sales representative18. Which of the following is a type of white blood cell?A. erythrocytesB. insulinC. LymphocytesD.HCs19. Why are novice sales representatives often placed in charge of negotiating MCO formularies?A. to become more familiar with the healthcare industryB. to become more familiar with their territoriesC. P&T committees are more receptive to new faces.D. They are not. This job is usually reserved for more experienced reps.20. What distinguishes pharmacodynamics from pharmacokinetics?A. Pharmacodynamics studies a drug’s ex vivo effects.B. Pharmacodynamics studies how drugs affect the body.C. Pharmacodynamics studies the how the body affects drugs.D. Pharmacodynamics studies the time required for a drug’s absorption.21 What proportion of the drugs tested on human subjects are eventually approved by the FDA?A. about 20%B. about 60%C. about 70%D. about 95%22. According to a study discussed in your manual, how do most physicians prefer to receive their drug samples?A. by borrowing them from hospitalsB. by ordering them over the InternetC. by trading them for servicesD. directly from sales representatives23. Which of the following is an example of a central value?A. I buy Advil to show that I’m a modern consumer.B. I like Advil because we were both born in the 80s.C. I prefer Advil because I like the flavor.D. I prefer Advil because it’s easier to swallow.24. Which of the following specialties likely has the MOST emergency calls?A. cardiologyB. psychiatryC. urologyD. All specialists have the same number of emergency calls.25. What affects the rate of active transport?A. the availability of carriers. but not energyB. the availability of energy. but not carriersC. the availability of carriers and energyD. neither the availability of carriers nor the availability of energy26. Over the last few decades, what has happened to the FDA approval time for new drugs?A. It has been lengthened to ensure safer drug products.B. It has been lengthened to limit DTC marketingC. It has been shortened to improve drug qualityD. It has been shortened to reduce the cost of new drug development.27. Which of the following would NOT help improve compliance?A. patients liking their providersB. patients using only one pharmacistC. pharmacists understanding how generics differ from brand name drugsD. support groups28. Which entity chooses a drug’s trade name?A. the drug’s inventorB. the drug’s manufacturerC. the FDAD. the United States Pharmaceutical Council29. What type of stem cells are obtained from embryos and can develop into any cell type?A. multipotentB. pluripotentC. totipotentD. All stem cells can develop into any cell type.30. As the price a patient pays for a prescription increases, what happens to the likelihood that the patient will fill it?A. It decreases.B. It increases.C. It remains unaffected because the prescription is needed.D. It remains unaffected because the prescription’s increased cost is offset by its perceived value.31. Most involuntary movements come from which type of muscle tissue?A. cardiac and smoothB. only skeletalC. skeletal and cardiacD. skeletal and smooth32. Which of the following is NOT one of the body’s major organ systems?A. the cardiovascular systemB. the cellular systemC. the gastrointestinal systemD. the musculoskeletal system33. How do most drugs exert their primary physiological effects?A. by activating synapses between different types of tissuesB. by binding to cell receptors that are sensitive to their presenceC. by inhibiting synapses between different types of tissuesD. through genetic mutation34. What is the most reliable source of information for determining therapeutically equivalent drug products?A. AMA guideB. Blue BookC. FDA drug listD. Orange Book35. What does subcutaneous mean?A. beneath the interventionB. beneath the muscle tissueC. beneath the outer skinD. beneath the suture36. What should a sales representative do if all of the prime spaces in a drug cabinet are coccupied?A. ask staff for permission to move some of the other products in the cabinetB. ask staff for permission to throw away expired products in the cabinetC. ask the doctor if he still needs some of the other products in the cabinetD. surreptitiously move your largest competitors’ products out of the way37. It is inappropriate for physicians’ prescribing behaviors to be educated by their personal tastes and idiosyncrasiesA. TRUEB. FALSE38.The FDA defines API as the active__ ingredient in a drug, which produces the desired change in the body.A. pharmaceuticalB. positiveC. potentD. primary39. What are the 2 legal classifications of wholesalers?A. distributors and supply chainsB. pharmacists and NAMsC. primary and secondary wholesale distributorsD. retailers and institutions40.What term describes the usage of a medication for purposes other than the FDA-approved indications on the labeling?A. contraindicative indicationB. off-indication usageC or D. off-label41. What is the acronym for pharmacokinetics?A. KNB. PCC. PKD. pT42. The dosage range of a drug that is both safe and beneficial is known as the therapeutic window.A. TRUEB. FALSE43. What is typically NOT a characteristic of a pharmaceutical sales rep?A. Pharmaceutical sales reps are authentic and real.B. Pharmaceutical sales reps are creative.C. Pharmaceutical sales reps are focused.D. Pharmaceutical sales reps are not concerned about competitors.44. What entity grants drug patents?A. the FDAB. the FDA if the drug is over-the-counter and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office if the drug is prescriptionC. the FDA if the drug is prescription and the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office if the drug is over-the-counterD. the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office45. Which of the following refers to all active and inert pharmaceutical ingredients in a drug, including fillers and colors?A. formulationB. mycoplasmaC. peptideD. saccharide46. What is the difference between potency and efficacy?A. Doctors prefer more potent drugs.B. Drug manufacturers prefer more potent drugs.C. Potency refers to the drug’s effectiveness. while efficacy refers to its strength.D. Potency refers to the drug’s strength, while efficacy refers to its effectiveness.47. What is the minimum level of education required for a nurse practitioner?A. a certification programB. an associate’s degreeC. a bachelor’s degreeD. a graduate degree48. How many names must a drug have?A. at most threeB. at least threeC. at most fiveD. at least five49. How has a longer development time increased the cost of bringing a new drug to market?50. Senior citizens consume over times as many pharmaceuticals as people under 65.A. threeB. fiveC. tenD. fifteen51. What agency regulates the distribution and use of narcotics?A. DEAB. FTCC. OIGD.TSA52. What is passive diffusion?A. a type of pinocytosisB. membrane transport via vesiclesC. the use of energy to help a substance pass from a low concentration gradient to a high oneD. when a substance freely moves through a membrane from a high concentration gradient to a low one

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