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February 23, 2021
Human Anatomy Discussion Board Post
February 23, 2021

paraphrase the answers below that correspond to their question make sure the answers are not the same as the original

What are the unique features of green algae?

Unique features of green algae are that they have chlorophylls a and b. They live in a very large variety of places, from snowy to tropical environments, and they also have many symbiotic relationships. While most are single-celled, some are multicellular nd not all are green (they can be orange or red).

How does reproduction occur within the archaeplastids?

Chlorophytes often reproduce asexually by mitosis, with each event making two haploid daughter cells. They come out from inside the parent when they secrete enzymes digesting the parent’s cell wall. However, when the conditions to reproduce asexually are not favorable, they will reproduce sexually by taking two haploids fusing to create a diploid zygote. This forms a zygospore, which stays in a state of dormancy until the conditions are better. Then, it will come out and undergo meiosis, creating four haploid zoospores that will grow and become adult cells. Charophytes, on the other hand, will go through sexual reproduction through conjugation. The two haploid filaments will line up, then join to form diploid zygospores, which will go through meiosis in the spring to make new haploid filaments.

What characteristics separate alveolates from stramenopiles?

Stramenopiles are brown algae, diatoms, golden brown algae, and water molds, while alveolates are single celled organisms. Alveolates will have small air sacs called alveoli. They are just beneath the plasma membranes and help the cell surface structure as well as membrane transporte. They include dinoflagellates, ciliates, and apicomplexans. Stramenopiles also have a hairy flagellum.

Which chromalveolates are useful to humans?

There are many ways in which chromalveolates are useful to humans. Diatoms often have remains called diatomaceous earth, which is “mined to use as filtering agents, soundproofing materials, and gentle polishing abrasives, such as those found in silver polish and toothpaste” (381). Brown algae is used for human food and fertilizer, including algin, which is used in foods to give them a smooth consistency. Golden brown algae contributes to phytoplankton, which provides oxygen for humans through photosynthesis.

Summarize the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax, one apicomplexan that causes malaria.

The mosquito is the vector, or intermediate organism, that gives the disease to the host. The life cycle will alternate “between a sexual and an asexual phase, dependent upon whether reproduction takes place inside the mosquito (sexual) or human (asexual). The females want to bite a human or another animal so that it can get protein needed for making eggs, which allows for the vector to be a common transport of malaria.

Describe the life cycle of Plasmodium vivax the species that causes malaria using Fig. 21. 15 on pl. 384.
a. This apicomplexan has asexual reproduction in humans, and sexual reproduction in the mosquito. Gametes will join in the intestine of the mosquito (female), then it will divide the zygote into sporozoites. Then they will move to her salivary glands, which transfers the sporozoites into a human when the mosquito bites someone. This allows for them to get into the bloodstream, then liver of the human host. The axexual spores reproduce in the liver cells, then go into the red blood cells, where they will “feed as trophozoites” (384). After that, red blood cells will explode, merozoites will enter, and their reproduction occurs in new red blood cells. The merozoites will poison the bloodstream when the red blood cells explode. While some merozoites will transform into gametocytes, they can become gametes if a mosquito takes them.
What are the two distinctive features of the excavates?

The excavates have “atypical or absent mitochondria and distinctive flagella and/or deep (excavated) oral grooves” (385).

Match two excavates with the human diseases they cause.

A parabasalid called Trichomonas vaginalis causes vaginitis. A diplomonad called Giardia lamblia causes the disease giardia, or Montezuma’s revenge. This causes extreme diarrhea in the infected person or animal.

How do amoebozoans move and feed?

They move and feed by using their pseudopods, which are “false feet” that help propel them forward.

Which eukaryotic organisms are classified as opisthokonts?

Animals and fungi are the eukaryotic organisms classified as opisthokonts.

What practical uses have humans found for radiolarian tests?

These tests form a layer on the ocean’s floor, which helps humans know if there are oil deposits existent. They have also been used to build the Great Pyramids.

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