Risk Management discussion | Unified Papers
February 12, 2021
Do this discussion question from articles?
February 12, 2021

Hi, I have 3 of my classmates’ posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Also, one source at least for each one of them. Don’t write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. The paper should be APA style.
The question was:

The Rysaback-Smith article and the Sphere Guidelines discuss some history of humanitarian aid and the basic principles that govern humanitarian aid. Do you see the manner in which humanitarian aid is provided changing? Please describe the change and how it could impact populations requiring aid as well as the impact on providers of humanitarian aid.

this is the 1st post from classmate need for response:
I see the manner in which humanitarian aid is provided changing by limiting the number of organizations allowed in certain countries and also the time in which these organizations can stay. There has been a significant shift from short term aid to long term aid because NGO’s want to mitigate the conditions (Rysaback,2015). This shift may seem to be in good faith or done to alleviate suffering; however, I think it causes dependency in countries where resilience needs to be established. There are also historical reasons why I think there will be a shift in humanitarian aid, two examples being colonization and apartheid. Areas primarily affected by these two eventsare seeming more fragile than other areas. Humanitarian assistance has been in these countries for years going in circles trying to help the nation rise from the ashes of the adverse events. However, it seems not to be helping in the ways that aid workers wish If the organizations scaled back their time and long term imprint in certain areas they can help to increase the independence and resilience of regions. I think soon aid organizations and affected countries will realize that they can work together to empower the residents to restructure. While also not being the most beneficial to the residents, in the long run, it is not for the workerseither especially in civil unrest areas or areas of environmental concerns. Humanitarian aid workers are sometimes exposed to a variety of threats and risks, the longer that they are subjected, the more likely they are to be negatively impacted.
Within the next few years, I think agencies in partnership with the affected countries will develop a transitional phase that allows for aid workers to slowly pull out of the area without altogether abandoning the area (Cornell, 2007) while the community is able to re-establish itself and return to a better state than prior to the disaster. I think at first this idea of a shortened deployment period and increase community involvement will receive massive push back from the community affected and possibly some NGO’s. This is because they are used to deliver aid in a specific way, and also they could feel that the nations do not want to help them. However, in the long term, the effects of future disasters will not be as detrimentalin the community if they get more involved in the mission areas of disaster management.
Cornell, R. (2007). Financing Development: Aid and Beyond OECD. Development Centre Perspectives12-15.
(Suppl 1), 5–7.doi:10.5505/1304.7361.15, Turkish Journal of emergency medicineRysaback-Smith, H. (2016). History and Principles of Humanitarian Action.
this is the 2nd post from my classmate need for response:
Humanitarian aid has been changing throughout history.Rysaback-Smith (2015) notes that, in the ancient world, humanitarian aid philosophies were embedded in religious beliefs reflecting ethics during wars. Aid involved the treatment of wounded soldiers, civilians, and prisoners of war. In the Middle Ages, public health boards were constructed, humanitarian aid was inclined towards quarantine, handling isolation, disposing of bodies, and providing disaster medicine. In the modern age, humanitarian aid is often associated with timely responses to both natural and human-made disaster. Technological advancements have made it easy for humanitarians to respond to hurricanes, earthquakes, and famine.
Humanitarian aid has evolved from a segregated kind of assistance delivered to war participants alone to include public health initiative and later disasters. It has become moreinclusive hence bound to benefit and impact more people positively. On the other hand, the inclusiveness and increased realms of humanitarian aid impact providers by requiring them to possess advanced skills and competencies to fit in the new roles. The expertise of the providers will make them more effective and efficient in their roles.

Rysaback-Smith, H. (2015). History and Principles of Humanitarian Action.Brown University, Department of Emergency Medicine.doi:10.5505/1304.7361.2015.52207

this is the 3rd post from my classmate need for response:
I do see a shift in how humanitarian aid is provided, largely based upon how the world itself has changed. Organizations are more equipped to help those suffering from disasters because they now have better technology to facilitate the mobilization of resources, more advanced healthcare, tools and cultural competence needed to understand the needs of the local community, and effective risk reduction strategies due to increased international cooperation (Coppola, 2015, pp. 10-24). Although the world has gotten better at responding internationally to disasters, the world is still changing. We are seen an increase in the number of people affected by disasters and the cost associated with that. Additionally, the actual amount of disasters, and notably technological disasters, have been on the rise (Coppola, 2015, pp. 30-32). It’s my fear, that they will continue to rise as humanity continues to decimate the environment and increase population density in urban and suburban areas.
Since there are statistically more disasters now than in the past, I could see a widening gap between the economies of rich and poor countries. It’s generally harder for those in a lower socioeconomic class to recover economically from disasters, and I think that the principle can be applied generally to countries as well. There’s a great graphic on page 17 in the required text by Coppola (2015) that illustrates what happens to countries when faced with a disaster. Essentially, if the frequency of impact increases the situation becomes like trying to swim in the ocean. Every time you come up for air another wave knocks you back down so it’s progressively harder to recover. Humanitarian aid can help shorten the reconstruction period, which is why it is so critical to improve recognition and delivery methods. People are affected more often, and so the need and cost of providing relief may rise as it has been.
Along with the previously discussed issues, the reliance on international aid could pose a threat to the mindset of building local resiliency. If someone else comes in and rebuilds each time disaster strikes then why should I bother to prepare to recover from similar events? How can I educate myself to be able to prepare for next time? Rysaback-Smith (2016) wrote that “as-needed provision of assistance [is] preferred over long term and complex developmental strategy” by most governing bodies, which furthers this quick-fix mentality. Treating a symptom in medicine usually does not eradicate the underlying chronic disease, and the same principles can be applied to international disaster management.
Obviously, it’s hard to predict how the dynamic between NGOs, governments, disaster victims, and other stakeholders will shift in the future. I hope that we can recognize current flaws in the systems and employ a multidirectional approach to help lessen the impact of disasters through building culturally-appropriate resiliency, streamlining international legislation, and developing more sophisticated models that incorporate how to provide aid instead of simply what aid to provide.
Coppola, D. (2015). Introduction to international disaster management(3rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier, Inc.

Rysaback-Smith H. (2016). History and Principles of Humanitarian Action. Turkish journal of emergency medicine, 15(Suppl 1), 5–7.doi:10.5505/1304.7361.2015.52207


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